Chapter notes: Chapter Notes from Journey Into Deaf-World Chapter 1 Chapter one is basically an introduction to the issues that are discussed throughout the book. Chapter one introduces all the people that are constantly referred to throughout the book. Ben Bahan is the narrator and introduces us to Jake Cohan, Laurel Case, Roberto Rivera and Henry Byrne. Ben is a CODA, Child Of Deaf Adults, and like many CODA’s tried to stray from the deaf community be was eventually drawn back to it. He is currently teaching at the only deaf college called Galludet University. Each of these characters describes there lives growing up deaf from when they became deaf, to how their parents reacted, to how they feel about it now. Jake describes himself as a CODA, his parents and brother are deaf. Naturally he grew up to be a well adjusted well rounded deaf adult. His parents were thrilled that he was deaf. Roberto grew up differently. His family was all hearing, and their first language was Spanish. His family had a hard time adjusting to the fact that he was deaf. However his mother eventually helped him by learning some signs. Laurel’s story was the most different. Her family was so unset about the fact that she was deaf that they enrolled her in a strictly oral program and she spent most of her life not being able to sign. She explains that she was deprived of being able to communicate for a good portion of her life because the school was so oral. Henry lost his hearing at the age of 21 so his experience was also very different. He explains that losing his hearing was the best thing that every happened to him. This sums up the whole chapter. It is trying to show the reader different reactions to being deaf, and how deaf people, like everyone else, have unique stories to tell. 1) What is a CODA and what does it mean? 2) What do many CODA's eventually do? 3) What is the books view on strictly oral schools? Chapter 2 Posted by Lonnie R on Saturday, June 14, 2003 2:57pm The response of parents to the advent of a Deaf child is likely to depend on whether the parents are hearing or Deaf. Often to hearing parents they view that child as having a disability. To Deaf parents, however, would prefer having a Deaf child. A Deaf baby in a Deaf household means the Deaf heritage of the family will go on. They are proud of their Deaf genealogy. They view, like most parents , that their child is a reflection of themselves. A DEAF CHILD BORN TO DEAF PARENTS The Deaf parents already have a home that functions as an environment conducive to using vision as the main means of learning and development. For instance their doorbells and telephones do not ring. Instead they flash lights each with their own pattern. They take their Deaf child to Deaf Clubs. The most important thing is that the child will enjoy a full command of language through exposure to ASL. Most Deaf children of Deaf parents function better than Deaf children of hearing parents in all academic, linguistic, and social areas. Some Deaf children of Deaf parents don’t realize that there are hearing people in the world until they are school age. Most Deaf parents have hearing children these ones are called “codas”. They frequently function bilingually, using ASL and spoken English with ease. It is a hard situation when Deaf parents take their Deaf newborn for a doctor check-up. Because being Deaf is viewed negatively doctors often give parents two pieces of advise: (1) Do not use ASL with your hearing children. They think it will hurt their English speaking capacity. (This is wrong because it will put a huge barrier in Communication with parent and child.) (2) Put hearing aids on your Deaf child. (Most Deaf parents loath to put prosthesis on their healthy baby. This would make the child look handicap.) Most Deaf parents ignore such advise and go home and proceed with their lives normally. Teaching their child to be a contributing member of society. A DEAF CHILD BORN TO HEARING PARENTS Most Deaf children are born to hearing parents. Their reaction is usually different. Many are driven by doctors to fix their child’s deafness. Whether it is through hearing aids, surgery, audiologists, speech therapy, using teachers that are trained in children with disabilities. The child grows up thinking something is wrong with them. Sadly hearing parents don’t realize that Deaf parents raise their Deaf children successfully with out many of these expensive services. A lot of frustration and stress builds because the parents cannot communicate properly with their child. Hearing parents often say that they were never informed of the many options that Deaf parents in the Deaf-World use with their child. Such as early use of ASL, hiring Deaf baby-sitters and day caretakers. Having spent months on an emotional roller coaster some parents refuse to accept the diagnosis that their child is Deaf. They are in denial that may last for years. Some go so far as placing their Deaf child (whom they view as just having a hearing-impairment) in programs designed for hearing children who have disabilities. This delays the start of effective educational programming and the Deaf child’s academic achievement is likely to reflect the delay. Many young Deaf children cling to their hearing mothers excessively. There is almost no meaningful communication. The interaction between parent and child becomes more the relation of teacher to pupil. A survey at one school for the Deaf found that only one parent in ten could communicate with his or her Deaf child. In these two situations what stays the same is the Deaf child. So the problem cannot be the Deaf child. Rather it lies with the hearing parents’ inability to expose their Deaf child to natural language with out taking special measures. The central issue in raising a Deaf child is language: the human capacity for language and the roles that language fulfills in a social existence. (1) What is the normal reaction of Deaf parents with a Deaf newborn? Why? (2) What is the normal reaction of hearing parents to a Deaf newborn? Why? (3) What is the central issue in raising a Deaf child? Chapter 3 Posted by Cherish S on Tuesday, June 17, 2003 8:20pm THE LANGUAGE OF THE DEAF-WORLD o There are 500,000 to two million speakers of ASL in the U.S. alone. o ASL is a complete, natural language, and quite independent of English. o One fallacy is that signed language is pictorial or iconic. ASL has a grammar. o Those who learn sign language as children and have deaf parents have the same steps that hearing children have when they first learn to speak. They babble and stutter before saying their first words and sentences. o There are more pronouns in ASL than in English. o At age two pronouns for all three persons can be signed (for a child with deaf parents). o Verb Agreement happens arund age three (for a child with deaf parents). o Nativization hypothesis states that children build the grammar of the language they are acquiring on the basis of internal norms. HISTORY OF ASL o Charles Michel de l'Epee, a French priest, founded the first school for Deaf children in the late 1760's. He was very instrumental in developing the French Sign Language (Langue des Signes Francaise, LSF). o Epee's sign language class grew from 2 students in the late 1760's, to 6 students, and ten years later there were 30 students in the class. By his death in 1789 there were over 60 students. o Thomas Gallaudet, a Protestant minister, was sent by philanthropists to learn the art of teaching Deaf people. o The Connecticut Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons opened in April of 1817.Laurent Clerc, a student of Epee, was the head teacher. o Toward the middle of the 19th century, deaf children were beginning to be more accepted. Most deaf children completed and elementary education and some even went on to "higher" education. o An oral school for the Deaf was organized in Massachusetts in the late 1860's. by Samuel Gridley Howe, an American educator. o In 1867 there were 26 American institutions for the education of Deaf children and all of them taught ASL, by 1907 there were 139 institutions and NONE of them taught ASL. It was banned by a special congress and only oral teaching was allowed. o Even today, ASL still struggles as the main language of the Deaf because of the decisions of those in the late 1800's and early 1900's. LANGUAGE DIVERSITY IN THE DEAF-WORLD o Geographic region adds to variations in ASL grammar and vocabulary. o ASL doesn't speak words like a/an or the. ASL uses pointing, eye gaze and location instead. o Pidgin Sign English is contact signs that combine ASL and English. o Not all deaf people can sign. Many of them don't have any kind of mastery of ASL. THE ROLES OF ASL IN THE CULTURE OF THE DEAF-WORLD o There are three roles in uniting a group of speakers to one another, a symbol of identity, a medium of social interaction, and a store of cultural knowledge. o A symbol of identity: has a lot to do with people's pride. The more pride a person takes in there language the more they are going to study that language and master it. o A medium of social interaction: Deaf people love ASL because it allows them to talk to each other and to understand 100% of everything that is being said. Deaf people only get fragments of information outside the Deaf-World. o A store of cultural knowledge: „X VALUES: Values, morals, history, and artistic expression are here. Deaf people who adopt hearing values are regarded as traitors. There is fierce loyalty among Deaf people. Visual perception and the visual language are all valued. „X CUSTOMS: A society's adaptation to its physical and social environment. Deaf people tend to be very blunt and honest. For example, in English we would say something like, "Excuse me, I would like to talk with you about my grade." In Deaf culture you would say, "You gave me a C. Why?" Blunt speech is not considered rude among the Deaf community. „X INFORMATION: Different cultures expect their members to have different information. Knowledge that a Deaf person should have includes the hours of the Deaf club, the names of important Deaf leaders, how to use a telephone relay service, how to manage in various trying situations with hearing people, and major figures in American Deaf history. 1. What is the range of ASL speakers in the U.S.? 2. Who founded the first school for Deaf children in the late 1760's? 3. What are the three roles of uniting speakers of the Deaf world? Chapter 4 Posted by Melissa W on Monday, June 16, 2003 9:24pm FORM and FUNCTION in ASL -The members of the DEAF-WORLD are more fully visual people than hearing people are. -English and ASL are quite different, one makes audible words using the small muscles and articulators of the mouth and throat, and the other makes visible words moving the larger articulators of the limbs and body around in space. -Spoken languages have rules for composing syllables from vowels and consonants, and signed languages have rules for composing signs from movement (M) and holds (H). -As with spoken languages, each signed language has its own particular inventory of handshapes, orientations, locations and movements. For example, we can make a clicking sound, written as "tsk", but it is not an allowable consonant in the English words, although it is one in several languages. ASL does not have any signs made at the armpit, but Hong Kong Sing Language does. -If the two hands in a sign have different handshapes, then one must be stationary. -One location (or handshape, or movement) in a sign may come to resemble the next one, for example in the contraction of SHOULD NOT, SHOULD is not produced in front of the signer at waist level, but anticipates the production of NOT on the chin and is executed in front of the chin. -Signs do take longer than words, but the same story told by a signer and vocalized takes about the same time. -In ASL, if a speaker is talking about two different things, they will assign each thing a side (right or left) and when they want to talk about the object again, they only need to point to the right or left. -Many ASL verbs glossed in English like GIVE, NAME, PREACH and ASK, are executed with movements than incorporate who is doing the action to whom. -An ASL speaker might put the topic first and then the comment, however ASL sentences frequently do have the syntax subject, verb, object. -The grammar of ASL requires that many verbs move from the subject location to the object location. -It has been
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